Overview of Pneumonia —Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by infection. Initial diagnosis is usually based on clinical findings and chest x-ray . Causes, symptoms, treatment, preventive measures, and prognosis differ depending on whether the infection is bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic; whether it is acquired in the […]

Pneumonia in the immunocompromised

According to The American-European Consensus Conference Committee 1994 to 2012 The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) was defined as  Acute onset of respiratory failure . Bilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph . Hypoxemia as defined by a PaO2/FIO2 ratio <200 mmHg . With  no evidence of left arterial hypertension or pulmonary capillary pressure <18mmHg to rule out cardiogenic […]


Tetanus is caused by a neurotoxin released by Clostridium tetani, a spore-forming anaerobic bacterium. It occurs throughout the world and remains an important cause of death with an estimated annual mortality of 800 000–1 000 000. Over half of these deaths are in neonates. Tetanus is a clinical diagnosis. Individuals with symptoms and signs […]


In healthy adults the normal PO2 is 80-100 mmHg . Hypoxemia can be defined as diminished amount of oxygen in the arterial blood, shown by decreased partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) and reduced saturation in arterial blood sample . PO2 values less than 80 mmHg is considered hypoxemia, however, with advancing age […]


comes from the Greek and Latin words meaning “grave muscular weakness”. —The mortality rate from myasthenic crisis declined from 42% in the early 1960s to 6% by the late 1970s. —Currently, mortality is 4% and is primarily the result of comorbid medical conditions. Myasthenic crisis Is a common life-threatening complication that occurs […]

Myasthenia Gravis

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncological emergency due to turnover of high cell mass malignancies resulting in severe metabolic derangement it may occur spontaneously  or after initiation of cancer treatment in patients with bulky, rapidly proliferating, and treatment responsive tumors. Tumor lysis syndrome is typically associated with acute leukemias and highgrade non-Hodgkin […]

Tumor lysis syndrome

Asthma is —chronic inflammatory disease characterized by ; airway obstruction airway inflammation airway hyper-responsiveness In response to various stimuli. In which airway obstruction is usually reversible (either spontaneously or after treatment) —Stimuli are usually airborne , they include: Pollens Animal dander Dust Pollutants Various chemicals Exercise Strong emotions Viral infection Epidemiology […]


—The causes of hyperkalemia can be best understood after a brief review of normal potassium homeostasis. The serum potassium concentration is determined by the relationship between potassium intake, the distribution of potassium between the cells and the extracellular fluid, and urinary potassium excretion. In normal subjects, dietary potassium is largely […]


Propofol infusion syndrome or propofol related infusion syndrome (PRIS) can be  defined as the occurrence of acute bradycardia resistant to treatment and progressing to asystole associated with propofol infusion. Bradycardia has to be combined with lipemic plasma, fatty liver enlargement, metabolic acidosis with negative base excess >10 mmol . l/1, rhabdomyolysis […]

Propofol infusion syndrome