Ketamine is the only anesthetic available which has analgesic, hypnotic and amnesic effects. it’s on the WHO list of essential medicines  Ketamine produces dissociative anesthesia. This means that unlike with other anesthetic agents the patient may have their eyes open and make reflex movements during the operation. It has a slower […]


Suxamethonium or Succinylcholine also known as  diacetylcholine is depolarizing Neuromuscular blocking agent (the only one used in medical practice) All neuromuscular blockers are structurally related to acetylcholine. Neuromuscular blocking agents are quaternary ammonium compounds. Positive charges at these sites in the molecules mimic the quaternary nitrogen atom of the transmitter acetylcholine and […]


to make this easy we will start by defining Hofmann degradation. its a reaction in which a quaternary ammonium salt is reacted with strong base, resulting in elimination of a tertiary amine and formation of an alkene. When multiple alkene products are possible, the least stable (usually the least highly substituted) alkene is favored (Hofmann elimination or Hofmann’s rule). easy right.  okey lets do some decryption here.. […]

Atracurium & Hoffman made easy

The designing of pancuronium started the hunt for the ‘ideal neuromuscular blocking drug’. Savarese and Kitz in 1975 defined their ideal agent as one that would have ‘brief, noncumulative, nondepolarising neuromuscular action with rapid onset and recovery; it would be reversible by an appropriate antagonist and it would lack clinically […]

Vecuronium Bromide